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Carbon filtering is a method of filtering that uses a bed of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, using chemical adsorption. Each particle/granule of carbon provides a large surface area/pore structure, allowing contaminants the maximum possible exposure to the active sites within the filter media. One pound (454 g) of activated carbon contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres (~40 Hectares). Activated carbon works via a process called adsorption, whereby pollutant molecules in the fluid to be treated are trapped inside the pore structure of the carbon substrate. Typical particle sizes that can be removed by carbon filters range from 0.5 to 50 micrometres. The particle size will be used as part of the filter description. The efficacy of a carbon filter is also based upon the flow rate regulation. When the water is allowed to flow through the filter at a slower rate, the contaminants are exposed to the filter media for a longer amount of time.


Sand filters are used as a step in the water treatment process of water purification. There are three main types; rapid (gravity) sand filters, upward flow sand filters and slow sand filters. All three methods are used extensively in the water industry throughout the world. The first two require the use of flocculant chemicals to work effectively while slow sand filters can produce very high quality water free from pathogens, taste and odour without the need for chemical aids.[1] Sand filters can, apart from being used in water treatment plants, be used for water purification in singular households as they use materials which are available for most people.

Sand Bed Filtration Concept

A sand bed filter is a kind of depth filter. Broadly, there are two types of filter for separating particulate solids from fluids: Surface filters, where particulates are captured on a permeable surface Depth filters, where particulates are captured within a porous body of material.[4] In addition, there are passive and active devices for causing solid-liquid separation such as settling tanks, self-cleaning screen filters, hydrocyclones and centrifuges.[4] There are several kinds of depth filter, some employing fibrous material and others employing granular materials. Sand bed filters are an example of a granular loose media depth filter. They are usually used to separate small amounts (<10 parts per million or <10 g per cubic metre) of fine solids (<100 micrometres) from aqueous solutions.[5]:302–303 In addition, they are usually used to purify the fluid rather than capture the solids as a valuable material. Therefore they find most of their uses in liquid effluent (wastewater) treatment.


A reverse osmosis plant is a manufacturing plant where the process of reverse osmosis takes place. It is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended species from water, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective", this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as solvent molecules) to pass freely.


The ozonator is a device with an aerator at the end of its hose, which is inserted in the water, oil or food. It adds a tiny amount of ozone and results in a sanitizing and oxidizing effect. Ozone is produced by adding a third atom of oxygen to a molecule, i.e. O3 instead of the usual O2.

Functions of Ozone

  • Kills bacteria and viruses in food and beverages with surprising speed.
  • Has a strong penetrating effect, sanitizing and oxidizing everything.
  • It can do oxidizing chemistry
  • Removes tapeworm larvae, sheltered ascaris eggs, freon and PCBs
  • While ozonating food and beverages, it turns into oxygen and water, leaving no toxicity behind.


Microfiltration (commonly abbreviated to MF) is a type of physical filtration process where a contaminated fluid is passed through a special pore-sized membrane to separate microorganisms and suspended particles from process liquid. It is commonly used in conjunction with various other separation processes such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis to provide a product stream which is free of undesired contaminants.

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